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Important events in ancient Egypt

13 Feb

1. To the first event is to say that today Menes (or also know as Narmer) is known as the first real pharaoh that ruled Egypt. Under him the country became united fo the first time and a great and advanced civilization should developed from it. At that time the first writing system also should be created. This is extremely important because without writing the ancient Egypt would have never been able to go so far, as it actually did. (For more information got to: http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/dynasties/dyn00/07narmer.html)

2. In the old kingdom some great master pieces of art were created. The Pyramids and the Sphinx are probably the most famous artefacts from this period. The biggest pyramid was built under Pharaoh Khufu (better known under his Greek name Cheops) around 2560 B.C. and it is today one of the seven wonders of the ancient world (the oldest one!). It took 14-20 (some sources say that it took much longer, about 30-40 years) years to creat this monument and it is about 480.6 ft high (about 146.5 meters). For over 3800 years it was the largest structure ever build by men and archeologist are still not sure today how the Egyptian people were able to build it. (For more information go to:http://interoz.com/egypt/cheops.htm)

File:Kheops-Pyramid.jpg File:Great Pyramid Diagram.svg

File:Cheops grote gallerij.jpg The inside of the great pyramid; the stairs to the king’s chamber.

3. The First Intermediate Period was probably caused under the reign of Pharaoh Pepi II. His government started in his childhood and ended with his dead when he was in his nineties. However during his time he loss massive power over his provinces and their leaders, the nomarchs. As climatic changes happened and the Nile’s inundation decreased the central government was not able to cope with it, so some of the provinces declared their own kings, like in Heracleapolis and Thebes (these were the most powerful ones, weaker provinces often declared their loyalty to one of these two new kingdoms). A result was that a civil war between Heracleapolis and Thebes broke loss, until  Pharaoh Mentuhotep II from Thebes was finally able to reunited the country again and start the Middle Kingdom Period (after 100 years of chaos). (For more information go to: http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html)

~Pepi II (cause Civil War)

   ~Mentuhotep II (ended Civil War)

4.Like the subscription says: In the Middle Kingdom Egypt rose out of the ashes of the Civil War and became a very powerful country again. During the Middle Kingdom the capital was moved from Thebes to Memphis, but Thebes became more and more the spiritual centre of Egypt because the God Amun had his cult there, and nearly all kings (of the Middle and New kingdom) felt a strong bound to this specific God. Sesostris III brought the Middle Kingdom in the 12th Dynasty to its political, economical and cultural climax. And after the long and prosperous reign of Amenemhat III, the power of the 12th dynasty started to decline. The central government started to lose power once again and perhaps a local potentate of foreign origin founded the 14th dynasty which ruled the eastern Nile Delta. As the country devided the Middle Kingdom came to an end. (For more information go to: http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html)

 ~Sesostris III

 ~Amenemhat III

5. During the Second Intermedia Period Egypt was conquered by an Asian group of people who were called Hyksos (it is the Greek word). They are often shown as cruel warriors and the Egyptian people were ashamed to be conquered by them. But the Hyksos also brought one or two advantages with them; they introduced the horse.  They ruled for about 160 years until finally Pharaoh Ahmose from Thebes drove them out of the country. He also is the beginner of the 18th dynasty which is the start of the New Kingdom Period (which is probably the most famous one, with Pharaohs like Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, and Ramses II to name only a few). (For more information go to: http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/egyptperiods/p/0222082ndIntPer.htm)

~Pharaoh Ahmose fighting the Hyksos

6. Pharaoh Thutmose III was probably one of the most successful conquerors in ancient Egypt. However, as his father died, The was not considered old enough to rule, so there for his fathers wife Queen Hatshepsut became regent and also the first female pharaoh. She ruled about two decades until she died, and then Thutmose III took over his throne. Today he is called the “Napoleon of Egypt” because  nearly 350 cities were captured during his reign, all over the areas of the Near East, Nubia and Euphrates. He turned Egypt into a superpower and a military force which had to be feared by everyone. (For more information go to: http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/thutmose.html)

~Pharaoh Thutmose III

 ~Female Pharaoh Hatshepsut

7. The Amarna Period: For centuries religion of the Egyptian people said there were many Gods which created Egypt and the rest fo the world and each of these Gods had a special role to play in their culture. But one Pharaoh was about to change that all. Amenhotep IV made a religious revolution that would have an unbelivable impact on Egyptian religion. He did not worship many Gods, he only worshiped one of the: Aten, the disk of daytime sun. He made him the only God,  and together with his wife Nefertiti he started to close down all other temples that were not for the Aten cult. He even changed is name into Akhenaten and built a new capital in an area which is today called Amarna. He erased the names and cults (together with the priest hood) of all other Gods; of course there were many people (especially priest who lost their power) who did not like these changes. Under his reign art went through a revolution, but his country did so too. The one-God cult was not accepted by most and there was an awful lot of exertion in the air during this time. Also was Akhenaten no warrior king, as foreign forces started to invade the country boards he did not attempt to fight and the land started to lose power and land. There were also economic problems  and the normal people thought that all others (now forbidden) Gods were angry about the one-God cult and that they were the cause for all the new problems. But Akhenaten did not rule for a long time, only about two decades and he only left one son to follow him on the throne who was not old enough to rule yet. Pharaoh Smenkhare followed him as ruler (some people think that Nefertiti changed her name and started to rule under this name/ some people say that is completely non sense…) but his reign was only a short period too. After his death Pharaoh Tutankhamen (son of Akhenaten) became king, in the age of 9. He was not able to resist against the pressure from the priests of the “old” Gods, and there for the old cult with multiple Gods became established again. Tutankhamen died in the age of 18 (there are several theories that he was murdered); he was the last king of the 18th dynasty. (For more information go to: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/amarnaperiod.htm)

~Pharaoh Aknhenaten

 ~His wife, Queen Nefertiti

 ~Pharaoh Tutankhamun (he is famous for all the treasures he was buried with!)

8.The Late New Kingdom was the golden Age of Egypt. The Pharaohs Seti I and Ramses II (he is probably the most famous pharaoh of the Late New Kingdom; he was an amazing warrior and he build many temples during his life time –Abu Simbel) made Egypt to a superpower again and ones again it was on its economic, religious and military climax. However, as all other countries around started to build weapons out of iron and developed there for new technologies, so Egypt was not able anymore to compete with these foreign forces. Once again the country had and Intermediate Phase (the third and last one) before foreign rulers took over the country again, and this time no Pharaoh should rise to throw them out. 

~Pharaoh Seti I

~Seti I’s son-Pharaoh Ramses II

9. The Foreign Ruler Period started officially after the death of Pharaoh Ramses XI. In the following centuries many foreign nations should invade Egypt and take of the “Pharaoh throne”. The most famous nation is probably Persia. Persian kings who also ruled Egypt were Hambyses, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, Darius I, and Darius III. This time was full of fear and insecurity for the people of Egypt. An invasion could happen at any time and a war always brought fatal consequences for the humans. The one person who should end this condition was Alexander the Great from Greek/Macedonia (Macedon).

~Xerxes I

 ~Darius III

10. Alexander III of Macedon (better known as “Alexander the Great”) conquered Egypt in the years around 332 B.C. as he fought against the Persian empire of Darius III. Egypt should become one of his most valuable supporting points. When Alexander conquered Egypt, the country had almost been 200 years under Persian rulers which had little respect for the old ancient cult of the Egyptians. There for Alexander was celebrated as savior, and even named as new Pharaoh. He founded several new cities in Egypt for example Alexandriaand tried to reestablished the Pharaoh cult. He  choose Ptolemy I (an old friend) as his regent in Egypt, and the descendents of Ptolemy should rule Egypt until the Roman Empire took over the land and Queen Cleopatra VII (the last “Pharaoh” of Egypt) committed suicide. (For more information go to: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/alexanderthegreat.htm)

~Alexander the Great

~Ptolemy I

 ~Cleopatra VII

 
1 Comment

Posted by on 13/02/2011 in Egypt

 

One response to “Important events in ancient Egypt

  1. Eva und Armin Hubl

    13/02/2011 at 12:44

    Ja, hier unser Kommentar: könnte nicht besser sein, sieht alles ziemlich gut und professionell aus. Weiter so.

     

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